Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is the co-enzyme (Cousin) form of vitamin B3 (niacin). Most of the studies on oral NAD have been done on the precursor molecule nicotinamide riboside. When getting an infusion, it's pure NAD and there's an immediate energy boost. When taken orally the energy improvement is more subtle. The key function of NAD is generating ATP through oxidative phosphorylation also known as the electron transport chain within the mitochondria. ATP is the energy currency that drives cellular metabolism; without it we would die. NAD gets converted back and forth to another compound called NADH. NAD can also be referred to as NAD+. NAD and NADH are found in different concentrations within tissues of the body. The heart muscle contains 90 mcg NADH per gram, muscle brain tissue to 50 mcg/g and red blood cells contain 4mcg/g. Tissues that contain more NADH generate more energy. Drugs and other toxins disrupt this delicate system. NAD is used in addiction recovery centers. Long-term drug and alcohol use can decrease energy production in the mitochondria, intravenous NAD has been used at high doses to reboot cell machinery and reduce drug cravings. For this, patients start at 500 mg and go up...